Batteries use chemical reactions to produce electricity. Classically, a battery is 2 different metals in an acid. Lithium-ion batteries are more complex, and have a high energy density. There is a higher energy density on your breakfast table. Sugar.
Scientists at Virginia Tech have created battery prototypes that use sugar for energy. The battery (really an enzymatic fuel cell) needs to be refilled instead of recharged. But it can store 15 times the energy and last for 10 times as long as a lithium-ion battery.