According to this article, bats spend less time hunting for food when the moon is out, supposedly to avoid being eaten themselves.
The temperature in Antarctica is about 70° warmer than normal. This is much warmer than climate models predicted. Granted, it’s still below freezing, but this does not bode well.
For years I’ve been fascinated by the deepest humans have ever dug into the Earth. The Kola Superdeep Borehole in the Kola peninsula of Russia is over 12 km deep. It took 20 years to dig that far, and they had to stop because it was so hot down there (180 °C) that the rock was plastic and flowed, making drilling nearly impossible. The project was stopped in 1995.
But it looks like scientists may have found a way to dig deeper holes, and use the great heat down there to generate power. We’ve been using geothermal power for a long time, but it hasn’t been feasible to do in where the surface crust isn’t hot. The really interesting thing is the way we may be able to drill deep, down to where it’s 500 °C.
Quaise, a spinoff from MIT, has a way to use millimeter-wave beam technology to easily and quickly break even the hardest rocks. They claim to be able to complete a 20 km deep hole in just over 100 days.
If this works (and that’s still a big if), it could lead to reliable geothermal power, without requiring CO2 emissions after the hole is dug. They’re looking to have a 100 megawatt geothermal plant operating in 2026.
I’ve been learning about the History of Science courtesy of Crash Course. It’s really interesting.
I first found out that the history of science was fascinating from Connections by James Burke. This was a PBS series back in the day (the late 1970s) (and it’s not really PBS, since it came across the pond from the BBC), and each one traced a series of scientific and technological discoveries from ancient to modern times. The first episode traced the invention of the plough to modern power blackouts. While the show looks dated (hey, it’s over 40 years old!), if you can get past that, it really rewards viewing. You can watch it on YouTube here.
Anyway, the YouTube playlist for the Crash Course History of Science is 46 episodes long, so I have some watching ahead of me.
Well, I just finished it today. There’s a lot there to unpack. I think they did a really good job with it. I’m also watching their course on Outbreak Science, and I want to start watching Geography; I’ve always liked maps.
Today I went skydiving with my son! First time for both of us. Until you’ve done lots of dives you have to go in tandem with an experienced skydiver. So we went to the Sussex Skydiving, and checked in. We each got hooked into one half of a tandem rig. Then we went up in the airplane to 14,000 feet (along with our instructors and the other people jumping). At that altitude the plane leveled off and pairs started jumping out.
First the instructor attaches you to their suit (the other half of the tandem rig). He tightens the straps so you’re up nice and snug, as one unit. Then we moved together to the open door, and I put my feet out. My instructor then pushed us out of the plane.
The first few seconds were somewhat disorienting, but I quickly got my bearings and started hooting and hollering. Of course, now that we were falling up to 120 mph the wind was so loud I couldn’t hear anything!
So the title of the post refers to the maximum downward velocity, in this case 120 mph. At this speed the downward pull of gravity is canceled out by the drag of falling through the air, so this is the fastest we went going down. We had about 60 seconds of free fall. Now, it turns out that in tandem jumping the instructor uses a drogue chute to stabilize the two of you. This means our drag was higher than without it, so our terminal velocity was lower. Also, two people falling in a tandem rig would have more weight for the amount of surface area, and their terminal velocity (without the drogue) would be higher. So I don’t really know what a single person’s terminal velocity would be.
Then the instructor pulled the chute and we slowed down. The chute provided much more drag, so our terminal velocity was less. Finally we landed back at the airport. For this the instructor had us dive, then level out just above the ground. We stuck our feet out in front, and hit the ground. Our forward and downward momentum was very low and we skidded for a few feet before stopping.
So Rileysci, how was it?
It was very exciting! Certainly more thrilling than large roller coasters. But I’m kind of old, and I had issues. Isome ear pain when going up in the airplane. Surprisingly, I didn’t notice any pain on the way down, but my body was overwhelmed with other things at the time and didn’t notice. While going down with the chute open I was kind of dizzy, probably from my nervous system being overwhelmed. It’s taken a while for my body to get back to equilibrium (yay homeostasis!). Overall it was something to check off my bucket list, but I won’t do this again.
My son enjoyed it much more and will definitely be doing this again before the summer ends.
Breakthrough Listen has been looking (listening?) for alien life in our milky way galaxy and at the 100 nearest galaxies. They’ve been specifically listening in areas of our galaxy where the stars are more closely packed: the galactic core. They examined over 60 million stars, but haven’t found anything significant.
I think that we’re unlikely to find signals from alien civilizations because I think we’re looking for the wrong things. I look at it this way: we’ve been looking for the kind of signals that we put out. Stuff like radio waves. That makes sense given our history; we’ve been dumping radio waves for over 100 years. But that presumes that aliens would similarly be putting out organized electromagnetic radiation. What if the hypothetical aliens have come up with a more efficient way to send information to themselves. What if they’ve stopped using radio, etc.
Perhaps they’ve shifted to using tightbeam laser communication. That wouldn’t be sending signals all over the place, just to the destination. It’s also more energy efficient.
If intelligent life out there is using some method to communicate that we haven’t thought of, then we may not be able to detect them, even if we’ve scanned their system for signals.
Of course I don’t have a solution to this problem. I know much less than the experts on what other methods intelligent life could be using to communicate; I’m just a middle school science teacher. I’d love to find evidence of alien intelligence. I just think that we’re looking for a needle in a haystack where no one is allowed to access the haystack directly.
I think that we may find extra-terrestrial life, but it won’t be intelligent life. It’ll be something like bacteria. Perhaps life is relatively common, but it doesn’t evolve to what we think of as intelligence. How would we know if there were a habitable planet within 50 light years that has life with the intelligence chimpanzees? They wouldn’t be broadcasting anything.
Herd immunity (or community immunity if you like rhymes) is the point when enough of the population has been immunizes so that a disease can’t spread much. Maybe only a few people get sick, but outbreaks are stopped because there just aren’t enough vulnerable people around for the disease to spread.
And boy, would we just love to get to that point with COVID-19. But at least in the USA it doesn’t look like we’ll get there. Why? Because you need enough of the population immunized. Something around 80% is needed(it varies depending on each disease’s R number). But with about 25% of the population here refusing to get immunized, we may never reach it.
Anthony Fauci isn’t talking about getting there anymore. He’s shifted to trying to get as many people immunized as possible. Others are more explicit:
“It’s theoretically possible but we as a society have rejected that,” said Dr. Gregory Poland, director of the Mayo Clinic’s Vaccine Research Group. “There is no eradication at this point, it’s off the table. The only thing we can talk about is control.”— Dr. Gregory Poland from an article in USA Today
Control. Not the nice kind where we’ve beaten the disease. The kind where we have to be careful for a long time. These anti-vaxers are just making things worse. It’s called a conspiracy theory for a reason: it’s like circular reasoning and non-falsifiability. i.e. not science, and not trustworthy. It’s like these people are afraid of critical thinking.
Let’s just hope we get there in spite of them. Maybe some parts of the US will get herd immunity while others just won’t have enough people who believe in science.
It’s been a while since I’ve written here. Busy teaching. (I know, lame excuse).
So I go and watch some video on YouTube, and on the side is the list of suggested videos. For a while there’s been this one by Veritasium (Derek Muller). Now, Derek is a fantastic science educator, and is who I want to be when I grow up. One problem is he’s younger than me by over a decade. Hmm. Have to work on that somehow.
Anyway, the video that was just waiting for me to finally click on it was this one. It’s about an equation that will change how you see the world.
The Logistic Map
The math is very simple: where is the growth rate. This is a very simple equation with a negative feedback loop.
When you graph by the equilibrium population, you get this:
Once the growth rate hits 3, the equilibrium population splits, and oscillates between two values. Then just after 3.4 it splits again. And very soon it becomes chaotic. Oh, and fractal. The chaotic nature was used for pseudorandom number generators.
The Mandelbrot set
Does mentioning fractals make you think of the Mandelbrot set? If it doesn’t, then you have some research to do.
It’s probably the most famous fractal out there. Heck Johnathan Coulton has done a song about it.
But evidently if you somehow rotate the Mandelbrot Set along it’s real number axis, you get this:
Look familiar? At this point I started getting a headache, but it was one of those good, excited headaches that come from having your reality twisted about.
Oh yeah, leaks. Derek then mentions that if you get your faucet going drip, drip, drip, and then increase the water pressure just right, it will start doubling: drip drip, drip drip, drip drip. Push it a little more, and you get chaotic behavior.
Of course the YouTube video is so much better than my explanation. Go watch it.
How well do you visualize things you remember or imagine? Try to imagine this: You have climbed to the top of a hill. You scramble to the top of some rocks. Ahead of you, past some more hills with trees on them, is a mountain range rising above the hills. The sky is mostly blue with a few fluffy clouds, and a plane going by leaving a contrail.
How well did you visualize that? Could you see it in your mind’s eye? Or was it just a description without an image?
If you couldn’t visualize it, then you may have aphantasia, a condition that 2-5 percent of people may have. This can affect how well we can recall things, to how we can imagine the future, and even dream.
See links for more information:
The solstices are the two days when the sun is the furthest north or south from the celestial equator. The full path that the sun takes over the year is the analemma. The solstices are the furthest north and south points on the analemma.
Stonehenge is one of the most well known monuments. The ring of standing stones was built between 3000 BCE and 2000 BCE. This English Heritage website is doing/has done livestreams of sunrise and sunset from the site.